Moa v Superman

Rodrigo B. Salvador

Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa. Wellington, New Zealand.

Email: salvador.rodrigo.b (at) gmail (dot) com

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During his heroic career Superman fought several foes. Some of these stories are truly memorable, like The Death of Superman (1992–1993), when he faced Doomsday. But many stories just ended up completely forgotten. Granted, there are some stories that most fans prefer to forget, like the film Batman v Superman: Dawn of Justice (2016), but some are curious or weird enough to eventually deserve a fresh look. The story I’m about to tell you is one of the latter kind.

This one happened during the first years of the so-called Bronze Age of Comics (1970–1985). Comic books from the Bronze Age retained lots of elements and conventions from the preceding Silver Age, but started to introduce stories more in tune with social issues, like racism and drugs. Likewise, comics also began including environmental issues and this is the topic I will focus on here. More specifically, on extinction.

THE LAST MOA ON EARTH

It is the first story on Action Comics no. 425 (July 1973), written by Cary Bates, illustrated by Curt Swan and Frank Giacoia. It is called “The Last Moa on Earth!” and by the title alone, you can see it is about a giant extinct bird.

It’s a Bird… It’s a Plane… It’s Super– no, wait, it is actually a bird this time!

My goal here is to guide you through the story and offer some Biology inputs every now and then, explaining some things and “correcting” the bits the comics got wrong. I do know that writers should be free to invent and I wholeheartedly agree with that – it is science fiction after all! However, there are some sciency bits and pieces that are so simple to get right that there can be no excuse for giving the public wrong information.

The story starts off with hunter Jon Halaway in a New Zealand forest, being attacked by a giant flightless bird. He shoots and kills it, and decides to visit a local scientist (in Hawera, a town on the west coast of the North Island) to confirm his suspicions of the bird’s identity.

Elementary, my dear Halaway.

The scientist tells Halaway that he shot a bird thought to be extinct for 500 years and that there were once thousands of these animals in New Zealand. Both pieces of information are correct. Scientists estimated that there were circa 160,000 moa in New Zealand when Polynesian settlers arrived between 1,200 and 1,300 CE (Holdaway & Jacomb, 2000; Wilmshurst et al., 2010). There were nine species of moa in total and the Polynesians (who later became known as the Māori) had already extinguished them all by the early 1,400’s CE (Tennyson & Martinson, 2007; Perry et al., 2014).

The scientist then says that the bird was the largest of the moa species, Dinornis[1] maximus. While indeed this species was likely the largest[2], it inhabited only the South Island of New Zealand. The species from the North Island, where Halaway was hunting, is called Dinornis novaezealandiae. So the writer got the species wrong, but we cannot truly blame him: tens of moa “species” were described throughout the years, mostly because of the huge difference in size between the sexes of some species confused early researchers. Thus, the classification of moa species was really messed up until genetic studies started to be conducted from the late 1990’s onwards.

The skull of a North Island giant moa, Dinornis novaezealandiae. Source: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (specimen MNZ S.242); ©Te Papa, all rights reserved.

On a similar note, D. maximus is actually an invalid name; the valid name for the South Island giant moa is D. robustus (Gill et al., 2010). That is because “D. maximus” was a second name given to describe the same species; to avoid confusion, only the first name ever used (D. robustus) is valid in these cases.

Halaway estimated the size of the slain moa at 12 feet (approximately 3.6 m), which is quite reasonable. The largest known specimens would have been 2 meters high at their backs or 3 meters high with their necks held straight up (something that they did not do; Tennyson & Martinson, 2007). Moreover, Halaway’s dead bird was a female, which are typically much larger than males in the two Dinornis species (Bunce et al., 2003; Tennyson & Martinson, 2007).


Box 1. What’s a moa anyway?

The moa belong to a group of birds called “ratites”, which also includes ostriches, emus, cassowaries, kiwi, rheas, and the extinct elephant birds. Recent research has shown that moa are not closely related to the other notable New Zealand ratites, the kiwi. Rather, they are closer to the charismatic South America tinamous[3] (Mitchell et al., 2014; Yonezawa et al., 2017). Since tinamous still retain some ability to fly, the moa’s ancestor was actually a flying bird (Gibbs, 2016).

The elegant crested tinamou, Eudromia elegans. Source: Wikimedia Commons (Evanphoto, 2009).

The loss of flight (alongside attaining a large body size) is a common occurrence on island environments where no mammalian predator is present. Other New Zealand species have also lost this ability; besides the kiwi (the typical example of a flightless bird), there are parrots (kakapo), rails (takahē) and wrens.


 

SECOND-LAST, ACTUALLY

Halaway realizes that what he did was plain wrong. As mentioned above, during the Bronze Age comics became conscious of social and environmental problems – and extinction is a major problem, since it is usually our fault. This is important because, even though more than 350 years have elapsed after the last dodo was killed, most people still do not really grasp the idea that a species can disappear forever (Adams & Carwardine, 1900).

The “good” Mr. Halaway than devoted all his energy and resources into finding the slain moa’s egg. He succeeds and notes that the egg was being incubated in a hot spring with “strange fumes”. The egg was really big and appear egg-shaped in one panel and spherical in the other. Moa’s eggs were not spherical and not that large. Nevertheless, they were quite big and the largest known intact eggs are 20 and 25 cm tall (respectively, for the North Island and South Island Dinornis).

Of course the strange chemicals will grant the baby moa superpowers; otherwise this wouldn’t be a comic book.

Halaway finally arrives in Metropolis, where he is interviewed by none other than Clark Kent. On the highway, Halaway tells Clark that he wants to redeem himself of his “unforgivable deed” and hope that scientists will figure a way to use the egg to produce more moa. The repented hunter then faints, just as the baby moa hatches and escapes, throwing the car off-balance and into a river.

Clark takes off his suit and glasses and, after he’s more comfortable in his supersuit, saves Halaway and takes him to a hospital. Now I will cut the whole weird plot short and just say that the moa created an “organic link” (whatever that is) with Halaway via a microorganism, and was draining his energy. Typical crazy comic book stuff, but that’s not the point here. So let’s get back to the baby moa.

These “clawed terrors” were actually fluffy herbivores.

SUPERMOA

Superman starts searching Metropolis for the runaway moa and eventually finds it flying. Yes, flying – without wings, the comic-book moa flies by “thrashing its feet at super-speed”. In fact, Superman notices that the moa can fly faster than a super-sonic jet.

Also, even though just a few hours had passed since the moa escaped, when Superman found it, the bird had already doubled in size. And these were not the only superpowers granted to the moa by the mysterious fumes.

Yep, you read it right – that moa is flying with its feet.

Box 2. The moa’s archnemesis

The moa were herbivores, browsing on several types of leafy herbs, shrubs and trees (Wood et al., 2008). They were so abundant that it is thought their presence in New Zealand resulted in the evolution of a set of counter-measures in some plant lineages, which have small and hardened leaves, and sometimes also spines (Greenwood & Atkinson, 1977; Cooper et al., 1993; Worthy & Holdaway, 2002). But who ate the moa? Well, they were were so large that one would think they had no natural predators before the hungry Polynesians arrived. But that would be wrong – moa were hunted by giant eagles.

Naturally one would think of this – it is New Zealand after all! Source: The Hobbit: An Unexpected Journey (Warner Bros. Pictures, 2012), screen capture.

They are known as Haast’s eagles, after the naturalist who first described them, Sir Johann von Haast. They are the largest known true raptors, in both size and weight. They could reach a 2.6 m wingspan (somewhat smallish for their bulk) and 16 kg in weight, with females being larger (Brathwaite, 1992; Tennyson & Martinson, 2007). To hunt and eat their massive prey, Haast’s eagles had strong legs and feet, with huge claws. Unfortunately, these amazing birds could not survive after the moa became extinct and likely did not last much longer than 1,400 CE (Tennyson & Martinson, 2007).

The skull of a Haast’s eagle, Aquila moorei. Source: Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa (specimen MNZ S. 22473); ©Te Papa, all rights reserved.

 

The moa also gained the ability to use its feathers as projectiles that could even pierce an elephant’s hide (according to Superman). Needless to say, birds cannot do that unless they are also Pokémon. Finally, the moa could instantly regrow lost limbs, a feat that few heroes (and absolutely no birds) can achieve.

Giant Moa uses Feather Barrage. It’s not very effective…
Holy regeneration, Batman!

After some more fighting, Superman understands that the bird just wants to go back home – to that place with the fumes and the lonely pink flower. Superman realizes that the flower is a “Quixa blossom”, as he calls it, and says it is a rare plant found only in northwest New Zealand.

Since my knowledge of plants is fairly limited, I asked a New Zealand botanist for help with this one. I was told that there is no flower with that name in the country and actually nothing that even remotely looks like it.

The “Quixa blossom” is actually the least believable thing in this whole story.

In any event, Superman finds the moa’s home and takes it back there, thus stopping the energy draining effect and saving Halaway. Superman then proclaims the area a “moa preserve” and sets up a fence around it. A thoughtful move, but one that completely overlooks the fact that the supermoa could fly.

THE END

The story ends with Halaway saying that “the world owns the moa another chance for survival”. Unfortunately, reality is not so kind: our species has wiped the moa off the face of the Earth and there is no second chance.

Overall, if you ignore the superpowers and the “organic link” stuff, this Superman story is actually a nice portrayal of an extinct species and its tragic fate on the hands of humankind. If nothing else, I hope it has inspired a reader somewhere to become a scientist or to fight to preserve other endangered animals.

REFERENCES

Adams, D. & Carwardine, M. (1990) Last Chance to See. William Heinemann, London.

Brathwaite, D.H. (1992) Notes on the weight, flying ability, habitat, and prey of Haast’s Eagle (Harpagornis moorei). Notornis 39: 239–247.

Bunce, M.; Worthy, T.H.; Ford, T.; Hoppitt, W.; Willerslev, E.; et al. (2003) Extreme reversed sexual size dimorphism in the extinct New Zealand moa Dinornis. Nature 425: 172–175.

Cooper, A.; Atkinson, I.A.E.; Lee, W.G.; Worthy, T.H. (1993) Evolution of the moa and their effect on the New Zealand flora. Trends in Ecology & Evolution 8: 433–437.

Mitchell, K.J.; Llamas, B.; Soubrier, J.; Rawlence, N.J.; Worthy, T.H.; et al. (2014) Ancient DNA reveals elephant birds and kiwi are sister taxa and clarifies ratite bird evolution. Science 344: 898–900.

Gibbs, G. (2016) Ghosts of Gondwana: The History of Life in New Zealand. Fully Revised Edition. Potton & Burton, Nelson.

Gill, B.J.; Bell, B.D.; Chambers, G.K.; Medway, D.G.; Palma, R.L.; et al. (2010) Checklist of the Birds of New Zealand, Norfolk and Macquairie Islands, and the Ross Dependency, Antarctica. Te Papa Press, Wellington.

Greenwood, R.M. & Atkinson, I.A.E. (1977) Evolution of divaricating plants in New Zealand in relation to moa browsing. Proceedings of the New Zealand Ecological Society 24: 21–33.

Holdaway, R.N. & Jacomb, C. (2000) Rapid extinction of the moas (Aves: Dinornithiformis): model, test, and implications. Science 287: 2250–2254.

Perry, G.L.W.; Wheeler, A.B.; Wood, J.R.; Wilmshurst, J.M. (2014) A high-precision chronology for the rapid extinction of New Zealand moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes). Quaternary Science Reviews 105: 126–135.

Tennyson, A. & Martinson, P. (2007) Extinct Birds of New Zealand. Te Papa Press, Wellington.

Wilmshurst, J.M.; Hunt, T.L.; Lipo, C.P.; Anderson, A.J. (2011) High-precision radiocarbon dating shows recent and rapid initial human colonization of East Polynesia. PNAS 108(5): 1815–1820.

Worthy, T.H. & Holdaway, R.N. (2002) The Lost World of the Moa: Prehistoric Life of New Zealand. Canterbury University, Christchurch.

Wood, J.R.; Rawlence, N.J.; Rogers, G.M.; Austin, J.J.; Worthy, T.H.; Cooper, A. (2008) Coprolite deposits reveal the diet and ecology of the extinct New Zealand megaherbivore moa (Aves, Dinornithiformes). Quaternary Science Reviews 27: 2593–2602.

Yonezawa, T.; Segawa, T.; Mori, H.; Campos, P.F.; Hongoh, Y.; et al. (2017) Phylogenomics and morphology of extinct paleognaths reveal the origin and evolution of the ratites. Current Biology 27: 68–77. 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

I am very grateful to Dr. Carlos Lehnebach for the help with flower, to Alan Tennyson for helping me to correct some mistakes on moa/eagle biology, and to Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa for allowing the usage of the photographs herein.


ABOUT THE AUTHOR

Dr. Rodrigo Salvador is a paleontologist/ zoologist who studies mollusks, but just happens to have a soft spot for giant flightless birds. He is a diehard DC Comics fan, but to be honest, he never really liked Superman. Instead, he prefers to read the stories of the caped crusader and his extensive Gotham “family”.


[1] Dinornis means “terrible bird”, just like dinosaur means “terrible lizard”.

[2] The largest tibia (a leg bone) ever found belongs to this species, being 1 m long (Tennyson & Martinson, 2007).

[3] Tinamous are not typically included in the ratites group, rather being historically considered a separate (basal) lineage and grouped together with ratites in the more inclusive “palaeognaths” group. However, the work of Mitchell and collaborators (2014) have placed the tinamous well inside the ratites.


Check other articles from this volume

 

Ants in the Ant-Man movie, with biological notes

Elidiomar R. Da-Silva* & Thiago R. M. de Campos

Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil.

*Email: elidiomar (at) gmail (dot) com

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Belonging to the family Formicidae (order Hymenoptera), ants are cosmopolitan insects, inhabiting all kinds of terrestrial environments, except the arctic, with nearly 10,000 known species. Ants are also social animals, interacting inside their nests within each caste and each role. These worldwide animals are abundant and dominant in each habitat and niche (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990), being responsible for a huge nectar consumption (amongst other substances acquired from plants), decomposing organic matter (hence helping with the ecological recycling of nutrients), as well as gathering and transporting seeds (thus helping plant dispersion) (Levey & Byrne, 1993). Artificial systems, such as urban centers, can be colonized and exploited by a variety of ant species. Overall, around 1% of the species could have a huge impact into anthropogenic activities (Zuben et al., 2004).

Ants, among all known insects, are quite prominent within our cultural practices, being frequently named and personified in fables, tales, movies, cartoons and even in more conventional works of art (Doré, 1968; Pérez & Almeralla, 2006; Souza, 2009; Castanheira et al., 2015). The prominent Spanish painter Salvador Dalí, for example, had a notorious passion for ants, which are well characterized in his paintings. Ants are likewise prominent in cartoons, such as Atom Ant (Hanna-Barbera Productions, 1965–1968) and The Ant and The Aardvark (United Artists, 1969–1971), and films, like A Bug’s Life (Pixar Animation Studios, 1998) and Antz (DreamWorks Pictures, 1998). More importantly for us, ants are featured even in superhero comics and films.

In the present article[1], we list all the ant species shown in the Ant-Man movie (Marvel Studios, 2015) and present notes on their biology and distribution. In order to do so, the Blu-ray version of the movie was meticulously watched, observing features such as morphology and behavior, which were then compared to scientific records.

THE ANT-MAN

At least three different characters wore the Ant-Man suit in the Marvel Universe, all of them somehow connected to the famous super hero team, The Avengers. Two of these characters, Hank Pym and Scott Lang, appeared in the 2015 movie. The hero’s power comes from the so-called Pym particles, a fictional substance that allows him to change and manipulate his size and strengthen his muscles, and a helmet that gives him full control of (and communication with) insects, especially ants.

Doctor Henry “Hank” Pym was the first Ant-Man, the inventor of the Pym particles, and one of the founders of The Avengers team, alongside Iron Man, Thor, the Hulk and Wasp (Fig. 1). Scott Lang was the second man to wear the suit, at first only to save his daughter Cassie Lang from a kidnapper, but afterwards becoming a hero in his own right. The third Ant-Man was Eric O’Grady, an official from the group called S.H.I.E.L.D. (DeFalco et al., 2009).

Figure 1. Cover of The Avengers #1 (September, 1964; art by Jack Kirby). Source: Wikimedia Commons.

THE MOVIE

Ant-Man is an American movie based on the comics, where Scott Lang receives a special suit that allows him to change the size of matter by manipulating the distance between atoms. It is the 12th movie of the Marvel Cinematic Universe (MCU). Starring Paul Rudd as Scott Lang, Evangeline Lilly as Hope van Dyne and Michael Douglas as Hank Pym, the movie was directed by Peyton Reed and a tremendous success, grossing over 500 million dollars.

Figure 2. Promotional poster of the Ant-Man movie. Source: Wikimedia Commons.

THE ANTS

Four species are featured in the movie (Fig. 3): the crazy ant (Paratrechina longicornis); the bullet ant (Paraponera clavata); the carpenter ant (Camponotus pennsylvanicus); and the fire ant (Solenopsis geminata). These species are presented below in the typical manner of formal biological classification, with comments telling a little more about their biology and discussing how they are depicted in the movie.

Figure 3. Scene from Ant-Man showing ant farms with the four different species.

Family Formicidae
Subfamily Formicinae
Tribe Plagiolepidini

Genus Paratrechina Motschulsky, 1863
Paratrechina longicornis (Latreille, 1802)
(Figs. 4, 9A)

Paratrechina longicornis are pantropical insects (that is, distributed across the tropics), also present in urban areas and a remarkable agricultural pest (Witte et al., 2007; Ward, 2013). Its common name, crazy ant, is due to its swiftness and agitated behavior. Because of their opportunistic behavior, they are present in degraded areas, sometimes being dominant in this habitat (Wetterer et al., 1999). The movie mentions their well-known swiftness and dexterity, besides the fact that they can conduct electricity. We could not find anything proving the veracity about electrical conductivity in these ants (at least, nothing that would set them apart from all other animals), however, there are records of ants that are so attracted by electricity that they can damage wiring and electronic devices, such as computers and televisions (Slowik et al., 1996; Ball, 2008; Readhead, 2014).

Figure 4. Scenes from the Ant-Man movie featuring crazy ants.

Family Formicidae
Subfamily Formicinae
Tribe Camponotini

Genus Camponotus Mayr, 1861
Camponotus pennsylvanicus (De Geer, 1773)
(Figs. 5, 9B)

Species of the genus Camponotus are cosmopolitan and habitat-dominant organisms (Hölldobler & Wilson, 1990), being the most representative group inside their subfamily. Carpenter ants construct their nests in wood, such as hollow trees, stumps, logs, posts, landscaping timbers, and the lumber used in buildings. This is likely the root of their common name. Nests are usually built in rotten, decayed wood, although some nests may extend into sound heartwood in the center of the tree (ISU Extension and Outreach, 2017).

Camponotus pennylvanicus is widely distributed along the Nearctic region (the region from Greenland to the Mexican highlands), with a few records from the Neotropical region (the remainder of the Americas), setting up the canopy mosaic due to its twig-nesting behavior (Ward, 2013). In the movie, it is mentioned that carpenter ants have good movement and flight capacity.

Figure 5. Scenes from the Ant-Man movie featuring carpenter ants.

Family Formicidae
Subfamily Myrmicinae
Tribe Solenopsidini

Genus Solenopsis Westwood, 1840
Solenopsis geminata (Fabricius, 1804)
(Figs. 6, 7, 9C)

Ants of the genus Solenopsis are commonly named fire ants due to their painful sting. They are also considered a cosmopolitan insect pest in urban areas and the countryside, foraging and nesting on the ground (Wetterer, 2011; Ward, 2013). The species is identified in the movie as S. mandibularis Westwood, 1840, which is presently considered a synonym of another species S. germinata (Ghosh et al., 2005).

However, it is notoriously difficult to differentiate species within the genus Solenopsis (Cuezzo & Fernández, 2015). As such, it is possible that the species shown in the movie could be S. invicta Buren, 1972, an exotic species introduced in North-American territory. This species originally inhabits flooding grounds of the Amazon biome, where the colony can aggregate in a boat-shaped way and migrate to other areas through the water, like a rafting boat (Haight, 2006). In the movie, it is said that fire ants are excellent builders, showing the boat-shaped aggregation (Fig. 7).

Figure 6. Scenes from the Ant-Man movie featuring fire ants.
Figure 7. Scene from the Ant-Man movie where the fire ants build a raft to carry the hero.

Family Formicidae
Subfamily Paraponerinae
Tribe Paraponerini

Genus Paraponera F. Smith, 1858
Paraponera clavata (Fabricius, 1775)
(Figs. 8, 9D)

This species is also known as the bullet ant due to its strong and painful sting. They are arboreal (but ground-nesting), medium-sized ants with variable behavior depending on the habitat they live in (they are spread all around the Neotropical region). There are several studies about their omnivorous feeding behavior, foraging throughout the canopy (Fewell et al., 1996; Ward, 2013). They feed on nectar, however, they prefer animal resources, specially other insects, when available (Fewell et al., 1996). Brazilian indigenous peoples use these ants in rites of passage for teenage boys, who are submitted to the ants’ bites (Costa Neto, 2005). In the movie, they mention that the bullet ant sting is one of the most painful there is.

Figure 8. Scenes from the Ant-Man movie featuring bullet ants.

FINAL CONSIDERATIONS

The Ant-Man movie shows quite a few interesting set of elements, which could be appreciated by the scientific community, entomologists and, especially, myrmecologists (researchers who study ants). Ants have a key role in the plot, being active and helping the leading figure in most situations. For example, Ant-thony, the carpenter-ant named by Scott Lang, is used as a mount throughout the film in order to get the hero to his destination. Such alliance, undoubtedly, allowed for a closer and more humanized relationship with the ants, that were previously addressed to by numbers by the first Ant-Man (and Lang’s mentor), Hank Pym.

Another interesting fact, in terms of science, is that all of the ants shown in the movie do behave differently, resulting in different strategies used by Lang depending on the encounter. In the battle taking place at Yellow Jacket’s facility, fire-ants conducted Ant-Man through the plumbing, the crazy-ants were responsible for damaging the electronic circuit, the bullet-ants attacked Yellow Jacket’s thugs and the carpenter-ants provided air support. In addition, the respective size of the ants was well demonstrated in the movie, which can be observed comparing different species sharing the same scene. Such comparison is also possible using Lang as a reference when he shrinks to the insects’ size. In addition, some information regarding the lifestyle of ants are slightly approached in the plot. The capacity that these bugs have to endure and carry extremely heavy objects (in proportion to their own body mass) is mentioned, as well as the “selfless” act of sacrifice in favor of the colony’s well-being, typical of social insects. Ant-Man himself benefits from this kind of behavior.

Figure 9. Ant species shown in the Ant-Man movie. A. Paratrechina longicornis. B. Camponotus pennsylvanicus. C. Solenopsis geminata. D. Paraponera clavata. Source: http://www.AntWeb.org; photos A–C by April Nobile, photo D by Will Ericson.

It seems clear that the whole crew of the movie had a competent advisor about ant biology. However, specific details, such as Solenopsis mandibularis being a synonym and the possible mistake regarding Solenopsis identification show that, if any entomologist was consulted, probably he/she was not a Formicidae specialist. It was not mentioned during the credits any sort of consulting, although John (2015) revealed that the quantum physicist Dr. Spiros Michalakis (California Institute of Technology) was the scientific consultant. Additionally, some blogs (e.g., Cambridge, 2015; Lobato, 2016) identify the crazy-ant as Nylanderia fulva Mayr, 1862; however, we did not find any reason to doubt the identification given in the movie.

All of the aspects presented here can be used in science outreach efforts, including teaching (Da-Silva et al., 2014a; Wolpert-Gawron, 2015; Da-Silva, 2016). With proper adjustment to a classroom setting, this content could be used as a tool to introduce students (middle school, high school and even college) to science in a much more fun way. For instance, some species mentioned in the plot are urban pests and can impact our quality of life. Paraponera clavata does not occur in the Nearctic region, which could be used as a stepping-stone to the subject of introduced fauna. The worldwide genus Paratrechina also counts with invasive species, which spread around the world through trade routes and impact society due to hospital and school infestations (Solis et al., 2007).

In terms of science communication and popularization, movies like Ant-Man could also strongly contribute to demystify insects as “harmful animals”, a non-scientific statement that unfortunately is still common in textbooks and that helps to form the public’s negative image of such an important animal group (Da-Silva et al., 2014b). A more humanized treatment towards these (and other) animals in popular culture could be an alternative and suitable way to raise the public’s awareness for the conservation of natural resources in our planet.

REFERENCES

Ball, L.S. (2008) Ants swarm Houston area and foul electronics. Laredo Morning Times. Available from: http://airwolf.lmtonline.com/news/archi ve/051508/pagea6.pdf (Date of access: 09/Jul/ 2017).

Cambridge, J. (2015) An entomologist’s scientific review of ‘Ant-Man’. Inverse. Available from: https://www.inverse.com/article/4658-an-ento mologist-s-scientific-review-of-ant-man (Date of access: 09/Jul/2017).

Castanheira, P.S.; Prado, A.W.; Da-Silva, E.R. & Braga, R.B. (2015) Analyzing the 7th Art – Arthropods in movies and series. Vignettes of Research 3(1): 1–15.

Coelho, L.B.N. & Da-Silva, E.R. (2016) I Colóquio de Zoologia Cultural – Livro do Evento. UNIRIO, Rio de Janeiro.

Costa Neto, E.M. (2005) O uso da imagem de insetos em cartões telefônicos: considerações sobre uma pequena coleção. Boletín de la Sociedad Entomológica Aragonesa 36: 317–325.

Cuezzo, F. & Fernández, F. (2015) A remarkable new dimorphic species of Solenopsis from Argentina. Sociobiology 62(2): 187–191.

Da-Silva, E.R. (2016) Quem tem medo de aranhas? Análise da HQ Aracnofobia à luz da Zoologia. Revista Urutágua 32: 10–24.

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Ghosh, S.N.; Sheela, S. & Kundu, B.G. (2005) Ants (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) of Rabindra Sarovar, Kolkata. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Occasional Papers 234: 1–40.

Haight, K. (2006) Defensiveness of the fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is increased during colony rafting. Insectes Sociaux 53: 32–36.

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ABOUT THE AUTHORS

Elidiomar R. Da-Silva has a PhD in Zoology by the Museu Nacional (Rio de Janeiro) and is Professor of Biological Sciences at UNIRIO since 1994. A pop culture fan, especially of everything related to superheroes, it does not matter for him if it is Marvel or DC – he likes them both.

Thiago R. M. de Campos has a master’s degree in Neotropical Biodiversity by UNIRIO (Rio de Janeiro) and is currently a high school teacher at Colégio dos Santos Anjos. Also a pop culture fan of every media, but especially games.


[1] This article stems from an original presentation as a poster during the I Colóquio de Zoologia Cultural (2016; Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil) and its abstract, published on the event’s proceedings (Coelho & Da-Silva, 2016).


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